Jumat, 25 Maret 2011
I tried to build a scan converter. Right photo shows my VGA monitor which displays TV. The VGA monitor (Nanao T560iJ) has two VGA inputs, BNCs and a D-sub, it can easy to change its inputs without any external video swicher. A small monitor at left end of the photo is a sub-monitor to be used during the VGA monitor is used for PC.
Now, difference between NTSC and VGA is shown in table 1. The horizontal refresh rate for VGA is just two times faster than NTSC, and vertical refresh rates are equal. Thus, only converting the horizontal refresh rate is sufficient for NTSC to VGA scan converter and its circuit diagram is very simple. If there is difference between vertical refresh rates such as PAL to VGA converter, it will require frame buffer, the circuit diagram will become complexity. I can't give any comment on PAL to VGA conversion.
|Video signal||H sync||V sync|
OperationFigure 1 shows the block diagram for the scan converter. Separated NTSC signal is decoded into RGB signals by the video deocder. The analog RGB signals are digitaized by video A-D converters and written into the line memories. The line memories are read at two times faster than write rate, same data will be read two times during one scan line is written. The timing diagram for this operation is shown in figure 2.
The timing clocks for each block is generated with phase locked loop which locks input horizontal frequency.
Figure 1. Block diagram for scan converter
Figure 2. Timing diagram for scan conversion
Building the circuit board
The scan converter has fast digital circuit and fast analog circuit. These should be separated from each other to prevent influence of digital noize from digital block to analog block. Especially, the phase locked loop must operate stably, otherwise the scan converter cannot be used for practical use. The phase locked loop is locked to input horizontal frequency stably, then adjust any other trimmer pots.
R2 15k 1/4W Resistor
R3 1.5k 1/4W Resistor
R4 1.5k 1/4W Resistor
R5 100 1/4W Resistor
R6 100 1/4W Resistor
R7 100 1/4W Resistor
R8 22 1/4W Resistor
C1 1000u 25V electrolytic capacitor
C2 10u 25V electrolytic capacitor
C3 470u 25V electrolytic capacitor
T1 BC549C NPN transistor
T2 BC547 NPN transistor
T3 BC547 PNP transistor
R1,R4,R5,R8______22k 1/4W Resistor
R2,R7__________680R 1/4W Resistor
R3,R6___________2.2R 1/4W Resistor
C1,C10___________1u NP 25V Capacitor
C2,C12__________22u 63V Electrolytic
C3,C11_________0.47u 400V Polyester
C4,C7,C8,C9_____100n 400V Polyester
C5,C6,C13,C14___220u 63V Electrolytic
U1,U2__________TDA2050V 32W Audio Power Amp